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Civil War, End of

A History of Florida


Death of Governor Milton. On April 1, 1865, less than a month after the battle of Natural Bridge, Governor Milton died. Kind and sympathetic, he had made friends in all parts of the State. As governor during the war, he had heavy responsibilities and much anxiety. This responsibility and anxiety, with the untiring efforts to relieve suffering caused by the war, all proved too great for his strength. At his death, the president of the Senate, A. K. Allison, became governor.

What distinction was thus won for the Florida capital? Tell of the death of Governor Milton. Who succeeded him?

Effect of the War. The war had lasted four years. All the ports of the coast were blockaded. One town after another had fallen into the hands of the Union army. The country was laid waste. The treasury was empty. There was only the remnant of a Confederate army, and that remnant was ragged and half starved. A braver fight can never be made than that made by the Confederacy; but now all was done that brave men could do. We honor the memory of the men of that army not only because they were brave, but because they counted no sacrifice too great to be made for their State and no loss too heavy to be borne for her.

Describe the condition of the Confederacy at this time. How did the Confederates prove their devotion to the cause for which they fought?

Surrender. On April 9, General Lee surrendered his army. General Johnston's surrender took place soon after; and on May 17 the troops in Florida surrendered.

Return of the Confederates. Now the Confederate soldiers began to return to their homes. Few were left of the many who had so eagerly answered the call for volunteers. Some had been killed in battle, some had died of disease in camp or hospital, some in Northern prisons. Of one full company that had enlisted in answer to the governor's first call, only seven stacked arms at the surrender.

Bravery of Florida Troops. In this book it is impossible to do more than briefly mention the work of Florida troops outside the State. In every important battle after the first battle of Manassas to the end of the war Florida troops took part. The honor of the State was safe in their keeping. Troops never before under fire went into action like veterans. Officers and men never wavered in courage and were distinguished for their steadfast endurance in long, fatiguing marches and watching as well as for their gallantry in battle.

When were the Florida troops surrendered? How did the Florida troops bear themselves in the war?

Regiments in the West. We have seen how the First Florida Regiment went to Pensacola. Afterward it went to Mississippi, taking part in the battle of Shiloh and other important battles in the West. Few that fought at Shiloh were left to take part in the desperate battles at Nashville and Columbia, Tennessee. Fewer still were left after those battles; but the spirit of courage never failed. The Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Regiments of Infantry, with the First Cavalry and one battery, also served with honor in the West.

Where did the First Regiment serve?

In the East. The Second Florida Regiment was the first ordered to Virginia. At the battle of Williamsburg this regiment suffered the loss of Colonel Ward, "as true a gentleman and as gallant a soldier," said General Early, "as has drawn sword in this war." At Seven Pines the Second Florida won for itself a lasting name, charging up to the Federal guns under the heaviest fire. The loss was terrible. Four captains were killed and six wounded. The Fifth, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh, also in Virginia, were not behind in brave deeds and honorable conduct. You will learn in larger books of all their heroic daring and steadfast endurance from Yorktown to the last hard fighting around Richmond and Petersburg. Always the men of Florida did their part nobly, whether that part was in the defense of the State or on the hard-fought fields of Virginia and the West.

What other regiments served in the West? What officer of the Second Regiment was praised by General Early? Tell of the distinguished service of this regiment. What other regiments served?

Officers of High Rank. Our State gave to the higher ranks of the service three major generals, Loring, Anderson, and Smith; and the brigadier generals, Walker, Brevard, Bullock, Finegan, Miller, Davis, Finley, Perry, and Shoup. Florida was represented in the Confederate Cabinet by Stephen H. Mallory, secretary of the navy.

The Women of Florida. The women of Florida did good work in caring for the sick and wounded in the hospitals, often taking them into their own homes. They also did what they could to relieve the needs of the soldiers in the field, denying themselves comfort to do so. A name widely and gratefully known in this work is that of Mrs. Reid, widow of Governor Robert Raymond Reid.

Name the major generals furnished by the State. Name the brigadier generals. What distinguished representative did Florida have in the Confederate government? Tell how the women of Florida aided in the struggle.


  1. What was the effect on the State of the closing of the Indian War?
  2. What old question arose as to the Territory in connection with that of admission into the Union?
  3. Name all the territorial governors in order, giving date and important events of the administration of each.
  4. Name the first four State governors, with the same information.
  5. Tell of the Secession and the Confederation.
  6. Relate the activity and accomplishments of the State troops before the Secession.
  7. The call for troops and the response.
  8. Operations at Pensacola.
  9. The taking of Jacksonville.
  10. The salt works of St. Andrews Bay.
  11. Unprotected condition of the coast and interior of the State.
  12. Invasion from the east and the battle of Olustee.
  13. Forces engaged on each side and the losses. Importance of the battle.
  14. The first raiding party in West Florida.
  15. The Marianna raid. The commander, force, date, conduct, at Eucheeanna, Colonel McKinnon, condition of Marianna, defense, the battle, results.
  16. Blockade of the Southern ports and its results.
  17. Condition and products of middle Florida.
  18. Cedar Key expedition.
  19. Natural Bridge. Union commander, force, and plan of invasion. The defenders, battle, and the results.
  20. Death of Governor Milton. His successor.
  21. Tell of the condition of the South at the close of the war.
  22. Tell what battles the First Florida Regiment served in. What other regiments served in the West? Where did the Second see service? Which others served in the East?
  23. Name the generals which Florida gave to the service.
  24. How did the women serve their State?


  1. Under what presidential administration was Governor Branch appointed?
  2. What States were in advance of Florida in passing ordinances of secession?
  3. Enumerate the several causes leading to secession.
  4. How many States seceded? Name them in the order of their secession.
  5. For what was General Bragg afterward famous?
  6. What does a blockade consist of?
  7. What operations in other States were simultaneous with each of these described in Florida?
  8. How was Florida peculiarity exposed?
  9. Name some distinguished Confederate generals whose attitude regarding secession was the same as that of some of the Floridians mentioned.
  10. Is it unusual for the death rate to be greater in camp and prison than in battle?
  11. Inquire among the older people of your community as to what substitutes they used for the various commodities which could not be procured during the war. Make a list of them, and write a description of relies of the war which you have seen or can see. Also write out any stories of war times that may come to your attention.
  12. How did the prosperity of middle Florida during the war compare with that of the present time?
  13. Who was Captain J. J. Dickinson? (See Mrs. Dickinson's "Dickinson and his Men.")
  14. Who commanded the Union expedition from Cedar Keys?
  15. Describe the formation known as the Natural Bridge. There are several of these in the limestone regions of Florida.
  16. When was the West Florida Seminary founded?
  17. What were the circumstances of the death of Governor Milton?
  18. Make a list of the Florida towns that had fallen into the hands of the Federals.
  19. How did the battles in which the Florida regiments participated rank in importance among the great battles of the war?
  20. How do the battles fought in the State rank?
  21. Which of the generals named afterward became prominent in State affairs? Tell of the public positions filled by each.

Excerpt from Part Two, Chapter 16, "End of the War" A History of Florida, 1904. Table of Contents.


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