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Le Moyne Gallery: Full Plates

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The arrival of the French in Florida in 1562. The French are shown exchanging gifts with friendly Native Americans in this plate. Plate I.

The French discover the River of May (St. Johns River). They sailed a distance up the river where they were met by friendly Native Americans who waded out to greet them. Plate II.

The French discover St. Andrews Sound, Georgia, which they named the Somme. The reed structures in the water were a device for catching fish used by the Native Americans. Plate III.

The French discover six more rivers. They called these rivers the Loire, Charente, Garonne, Gironde, Belle, and the Grande. Plate IV.

The French arrive at a wide river they name Port Royal (Portus Regalis). Sailing up the river they encounter a group of Native americans roasting a lynx. The French name the area Lynx Point (Prom. Lupi). Plate V.

The French erect a column with the royal coat of arms on an island they call Libourne. This exact location of this column intended to mark the northern boundary of French territory is not known, but may be near Beaufort, South Carolina. Plate VI.

The colony at Charlesfort runs short of food. The men left at Charlesfort canoe through alligator-infested rivers to get help from Native Americans. Plate VII.

The Native Americans worship Ribault's column. This column was left two years earlier by Laudonnière on the St. Johns River near Jacksonville. The column has been decorated with flowers and various offerings have been left at its base. The column is shown to Laudonnière by Atore, the son of chief Satouriona. Plate VIII.

The French build Fort Caroline. The fort was built on the bank of the St. Johns River. Trenches were dug along the other two sides of the triangular fort for protection. Plate IX.

Fort Caroline. The side of the fort facing the river was built with planks. The other two sides were constructed of earth. The oven was built outside the fort to reduce the risk of fire. Plate X.

Chief Satouriona prepares for battle. Two containers of water are used in the ritual. One container is splashed over the men with the prayer to the sun that the enemy's blood will likewise be splashed over them. The second container is poured over the fire in the hope that the enemy will be extinguished as the fire is extinguished. Plate XI.

Chief Outina consults his sorcerer before battle. The sorcerer kneels on a shield surrounded with signs scratched in the ground. He contorts himself in an effort to determine the strength of the enemy. Plate XII.

Outina defeats Patanou with the help of the French. The French are on the front lines with their superior weapons. (The engraving probably reflects more of a European practice of warfare than what was practiced by Native Americans.) Plate XIII.

Chief Outina marches to war covered in red war paint. Plate XIV.

Trophies and ceremonies after a victory. The sorcerer chants curses upon the enemy to the rhythm of three musicians. One beats a stone with a club and the other two shake gourds filled with small stones. Plate XVI.

Carrying the dead from the battlefield. Le Moyne noted that the dead were supported under their heads and had fur wrapped around their chest, thigh, and shin. He never learned the significance of this custom. Plate XVII.

The widows approach the chief after a battle. Hiding their faces they petition the chief to avenge their husband's deaths, to provide for them in their widowhood, and to grant them permission to remarry after a period of mourning. Plate XVIII.

The mourning widows. The widows placed their husband's drinking cup and weapons on their graves. Then they cut off their hair just below their ears and scatter it on the graves. When their hair grew down over their shoulders, they were permitted to re-marry. Plate XIX.

How the Native Americans treat their sick. This plate shows three different practices. on the left, a sick man has his forehead cut and blood sucked out by someone who spits it into a jar. This is then consumed by pregnant women in the belief that it will make their babies stronger. On the right a man breathes smoke from on fire on which seeds have been thrown it order to purge his body of poisons. In the background, a man smokes tobacco in an attempt to cure an infection. Plate XX.

How the Native Americans till the soil and plant. The men are shown using a type of hoe made of a fishbone on a wooden stick. The women make holes in the soil and drop in the seeds. Plate XXI.

Bringing crops to the public storehouse. The storehouses were constructed by stones and mud with low roofs. The harvest from islands would be brought in by canoe. Plate XXII.

Bringing in wild animals, fish, and reptiles for food. At certain times of the year animals were hunted and brought to the public storehouse. Plate XXIII.

Drying meat, fish, and other food. The smoked meat would be preserved and could be eaten later. Plate XXIV.

Hunting deer. This method of covering oneself in a skin to sneak up on the deer was novel to the Frenchmen. Plate XXV.

Hunting alligators. Since alligators were a threat to the village a guard kept watch from a small hut with many holes for looking out. When an alligator came near the guard called for help and the men tried to ram a pointed log down its throat. When the alligator got its teeth stuck in the log, the men would flip it over and attack its softer underbelly. It is obvious from this plate that the engraver had never seen an alligator. Notice the ears and fingers. Plate XXVI.

Crossing over to an island on a pleasure trip. The woman carries the children and food while the man carries the bow for protection. He has tied his quiver to the top of his head to keep the arrows from getting wet. Plate XXVII.

Preparing for a feast. a cook adds ingredients to a large earthenware bowl over the fire. A man fans the fire while others grind herbs and spices. Plate XXVIII.

A council of state. The chief sits at the place of honor surrounded by his advisors. A bitter black tea called casina is prepared by the women. Those who vomit up the tea are considered to be unfit for battle. Plate XXIX.

A fortified village. Guard houses are located at the entrance. The houses had no windows. The large council house at the center of the village was also probably round, not rectangular as show in this illustration. Plate XXX.

Setting an enemy's village on fire. The thatched roofs were an easy target for arrows with flaming moss attached. Plate XXXI.

How war was declared. The Native Americans would plant arrows with locks of hair attached outside the village of the enemy. Plate XXXIII.

The sacrifice of the first-born son. The mother would cover her face as the child was brought to the chief by another woman. Other women would dance in a circle. When the dancing ended, a warrior would club the child to death on the tree stump. Plate XXXIV.

Harvest offering. The skin of a large stag was stuffed with vegetables and carried to a clearing in the forest on the first day of spring. It was mounted on a pole and prayers would be offered to the sun for a bountiful harvest. Plate XXXV.

Various sports. Exercise activities were designed to prepare young men for war. Contests were held to see who could hit a target on a pole with a ball or arrows, or who could run the farthest on a single breath. Plate XXXVI.

A bride is carried to the chief. Four strong men carry the litter. The bride is seated on rare animal skins and shaded from the sun by a canopy of branches. Musicians lead the way. Fan bearers walk at her side. Other maidens wearing pearls and bearing baskets of fruit follow in the procession. Plate XXXVII.

The chief receives his bride. The chief waits on a wooden platform. When arrives he tells her why she chosen and she is then seated at the chief's left. The maidens dance in a circle as the seated noblemen look on. Plate XXXVIII.

Chief Satouriona and his wife go for a walk. The chief wears a painted deerskin and is followed by an attendant to hold his train. The chief and his wife are tattooed and have blue painted around their mouths. They wear red ornaments made from fish bladders in their ears and have sharpened their nails like animal claws. Plate XXXIX.

How the chief is buried. The chief's grave is circled with arrows and topped with his drinking cup. Some of his belongings are buried with him. His house and other possessions are burned and a three-day fast is held in the village. Plate XL.

Collecting gold. The French believed that the Native Americans collected gold, silver, and copper from three great rivers in the Appalachian Mountains. They were thought to use hollow reeds to suck up river silt containing the precious metals. Plate XLI.

The murder of Pierre Gambié. This Frenchman made a large fortune by trading with the Native Americans. He even married the daughter of a chief. However, he was considered to be very greedy and was killed by this own guides who fled with his goods. Plate XLII.



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