Allies: During World War II, the group of nations including the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, and the Free French, who joined in the war against Germany and other Axis countries.
Auschwitz - Birkenau /oushvits - biakenow/ : A complex consisting of concentration, extermination, and labor camps in Upper Silesia. It was established in 1940 as a concentration camp and included a killing center in 1942. Auschwitz I: The main camp. Auschwitz II (Also known as Birkenau): The extermination center. Auschwitz III (Monowitz): The I.G. Farben labor camp, also known as Buna. In addition, there were numerous subsidiary camps.
B'richa: The organized and illegal mass movement of Jews throughout Europe following World War II.
Bund /boond/ : The Jewish Socialist Party founded in 1897. It aspired to equal rights for the Jewish population. During World War II the Bund was active in the underground resistance and some Bund members were also part of some Judenrat councils. They took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Bystander: One who is present at some event without participating in it.
Collaboration: Cooperation between citizens of a country and its occupiers.
Dachau /dakhou/ : Nazi concentration camp in southern Germany. Erected in 1933, this was the first Nazi concentration camp. Used mainly to incarcerate German political prisoners until late 1938, whereupon large numbers of Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and other supposed enemies of the state and anti-social elements were sent as well. Nazi doctors and scientists used many prisoners at Dachau as guinea pigs for experiments. Dachau was liberated by American troops in April 1945.
Death camp: Nazi extermination centers where Jews and other victims were brought to be killed as part of Hitler's Final Solution.
Death marches: Forced marches of prisoners over long distances and under intolerable conditions was another way victims of the Third Reich were killed. The prisoners, guarded heavily, were treated brutally and many died from mistreatment or were shot. Prisoners were transferred from one ghetto or concentration camp to another ghetto or concentration camp or to a death camp.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.: As Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, General Eisenhower commanded all Allied forces in Europe beginning in 1942.
Guerrilla warfare: Fighting in which small independent bands of soldiers harass an enemy through surprise raids, attacks on communications and the like.
Partisans: Irregular forces which use guerrilla tactics when operating in enemy-occupied territory. During the Holocaust, partisans operated secretly in their efforts to assist Jews and others persecuted by the Nazis.
Righteous Gentiles: Non-Jewish people who, during the Holocaust, risked their lives to save Jewish people from Nazi persecution. Today, a field of trees planted in their honor at the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem, Israel, commemorates their courage and compassion.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano: Thirty-second president of the U.S., serving from 1933-1945.
Hannah Sennesh : A Palestinian Jew of Hungarian descent who fought as a partisan against the Nazis. She was captured at the close of the war and assassinated in Budapest by the Nazis.
Underground: Organized group acting in secrecy to oppose government, or, during war, to resist occupying enemy forces.
Raoul Wallenberg: A Swedish diplomat who deliberately stationed himself in Hungary during the war to save Hungarian Jews from their deaths.
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Discussion Questions/Research Topics
- View the movie Schindler's list and describe his acts of heroism.
- If you were in danger of being killed for your actions, would you help others escape Nazi persecution?
- How would you suggest dealing terms with humanitarian crimes if committed by your country?
- Who would you consider responsible for Nazi crimes, those who made the laws of persecution, those who carried them out, those who did not interfere?
- Discuss the following question: "Do you think that a bystander is guilty of the crime s/he stands by and lets happen?"
- Identify the risks of helping or even being associated with someone considered "undesirable" by Nazi policy.
- Analyze the dilemma of the bystander in Nazi Europe.
- Many Jewish children were sent to England during World War II to be kept safe. Research the Kindertransport and use evidence to explain if the program was, in your opinion, a good solution to the problem.
- Discuss current acts of persecution of certain groups in today's newspapers and magazines.
- Discuss the irony in Raoul Wallenberg's life story and mysterious disappearance.
- What role did Nazi resistance fighters play in aiding victims of persecution?
Reproducible Student Hand-Outs
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following abridged bibliography and introduction is reproduced with the permission of the authors, Mary Mark and Mark Klempner.
To view the entire bibliography (which includes links to some of the books), visit their Web site, "Whosoever Saves a Single Life..."
Whosoever saves a single life...
The Holocaust is a history of overwhelming horror and enduring sorrow. Sometimes it seems as though there is no spark of human concern or kindness, no act of humanity, to lighten that dark history. Yet there were acts of courage and kindness during the Holocaust which can offer us some hope for our past and for our future. Archives such as those of the United States Holocaust Museum contain records of rescues and survivors; Yad Vashem, in Jerusalem, has honored more than 20,000 rescuers, and many additional cases await their consideration.
This bibliography lists works in English which discuss the lives and actions of rescuers during the Holocaust. Individuals, groups, and in the case of Denmark, almost an entire country, reached out. Bulgaria was also active in protecting its Jewish population.
People like Andre Trocmé, the minister and spiritual leader of the village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, probably fit most closely to our stereotypes of those who will help. Trocmé was clearly motivated by ethical and religious convictions. Yet many others, who could have been expected to hold similar beliefs, failed to act. Less expected is an Oskar Schindler, the opportunistic businessman who made a fortune using Jewish slave labour—and spent that fortune again to save the lives of those in his factory. What did they have in common?
What was it that lead some people to reach out and help others, to become rescuers, while most of the population around them did not? What was it, about individuals and societies, that led them to act on behalf of strangers? Perhaps, if we can begin to understand this, we can begin to build societies in which such actions are more likely to happen, and in which genocide is less likely to occur.
- Abraham-Podietz, Eva, & Fox, Anne. Ten Thousand Children: True Stories Told by Children Who Escaped the Holocaust on the Kindertransport Springfield, New Jersey: Behrman House, 1998.
- Agar, H. The Saving Remnant: An Account of Jewish Survival. New York: Viking, 1960.
- Anger, Per. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest. (Firsthand account.) New York: Holocaust Library, 1981.
- Arnold, Elliot. A Night of Watching. New York: Scribner, 1967.
- Barfod, Jorgen H. The Holocaust Failed in Denmark. Copenhagen: Frihedsmuseets Venners, 1985.
- Bacque, J. Just Raoul: The private war against the Nazis of Raoul Laporterie, Who Saved Over 1,600 Lives in France. Rocklin, CA.: Prima Publishing, 1992.
- Bartoszewski, W. & Lewin, Z. The Righteous Among the Nations. London: Earls Court, 1969.
- Bartoszewski, W. & Lewinowna, Z. The Samaritans: Heroes of the Holocaust. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1970.
- Bauer, Y. They Chose Life. New York: American Jewish Committee, 1973.
- Bauminger, A.L. The Righteous. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1983.
- Bar-Zohar, Michael. Beyond Hitler's Grasp: the Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews. Holbrook, Mass: Adams Media, 1998.
- Benchley, Nathaniel. Bright Candles. New York: Harper and Row, 1974.
- Bentwich, Norman. They Found Refuge. London: The Cresset Press, 1956.An account of the Kindertransport.
- Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust As Told In The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1993.An excellent introduction. 'The Last Chapter' reviews rescuers and rescue attempts as well as the liberation of the camps. Very useful bibliographic notes and references.
- Berenstein, T. & Rutkowski, A. Assistance to the Jews in Poland (1939-1945). Warsaw: Polonia Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1963.
- Bertelsen, Aage. October '43. New York: Putnam, 1954.
- Bierman, John. Righteous Gentile: The Story of Raoul Wallenberg, Missing Hero of the Holocaust. New York: Viking Press, 1981.
- Biss, A. A Million Jews to Save. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1975.
- Blend, Martha. A Child Alone. London: Vallentine Mitchell & Co., 1995.An account of the Kindertransport.
- Block, Gay & Drucker, Malka. Rescuers: Portraits of moral courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992.This oversize almost-coffee-table book contains brief narratives from 49 European rescuers. Each chapter opens with photos of the rescuer from the time of the war, plus a short narrative or interview, followed by Block's full-page color portrait.
- Blond, S. The Righteous Gentiles. Tel Aviv: S. Blond, 1983.
- Boehm, E.H. We Survived: Fourteen Histories of the Hidden and Hunted of Nazi Germany. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949; Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio Information Services, 1985.
Brecher, Elinor J. Schindler's Legacy: True Stories of the List Survivors. New York: Plume/Penguin, 1994.
- Daniel, Jamie et al. Raoul Wallenberg: One Man Against Nazi Terror (People Who Made a Difference). Gareth Stevens Pub, 1992.
- Deaglio, Enrico. The Banality of Goodness: The Story of Giorgio Perlasca. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998.
- Drucker, Malka & Halpern, M. Jacob's rescue: A Holocaust story. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. [See also under Block]
- Drucker, Olga Levy. Kindertransport. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995.
- Edelheit, Abraham J. The Yishuv in the shadow of the Holocaust: Zionist politics and rescue aliya, 1933-1939. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
- Eden, Thea Feliks. A Transported Life: Memories of Kindertransport. Santa Cruz, California, USA: Herbooks, 1995
- Fabre, Emil C. (Ed.) God's underground. Translation by William & Patricia Nottingham. St. Louis, Mo.: Bethany, 1970.This is an authoritative study of the rescue efforts of the Cimade, a group which helped people to escape throught the mountains of France into neutral Switzerland.
- Fensch, Thomas. Oskar Schindler and His List: The Man, the Book, the Film, the Holocaust and Its Survivors. P.S. Eriksson, 1995.
- Fenyvesi, Charles. When Angels Fooled the World: Rescuers of Jews in Wartime Hungary. University of Wisconsin Press, 2003.Described by the Cleveland Plain Dealer as "a unique blend of passionate engagement and clear, level-headed analysis."
- Fittko, Lisa. Escape through the Pyrenees. Trans. David Koblick Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1991.
- Flaim, Richard, et al. (Eds.) The Holocaust and genocide: A Search for Conscience. 2 volumes, 2nd edition. New York: Anti-defamation League of B'nai Brith, 1986.Curriculum guide and anthology on the Holocaust with units on rescue.
- Flender, Harold. Rescue in Denmark. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963; Holocaust Library, 1980.
- Flim, Bert Jan. Saving the Children: History of the Organized Effort to Rescue Jewish Children in the Netherlands 1942-1945. Bethesda: CDL Press, 2005.
- Fogelman, Eva. Conscience and Courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1994.A psychotherapist and the founding director of the Jewish Foundation for Christian Rescuers, Dr. Fogelman presents stories of individuals who risked their lives to rescue Jews throughout Europe and classifies them into five categories based on their motivations. Fogelman also examines how the act of rescuing affected the rescuers' self-image, both during and after the war.
- Ford, H. Flee the Captor. Nashville, TN: Southern Publishing Association, 1966.
- Friedenson, Joseph. Heroine of Rescue: the incredible story of Recha Sternbuch who saved thousands from the Holocaust by Joseph Friedenson, David Kranzler ; foreward by Julius Kuhl. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Mesorah Publications, 1984.
- Friedman, Philip. Their Brother's Keepers: The Christian Heroes and Heroines who Helped the Oppressed Escape the Nazi Terror. New York: Crown Publishers, 1957; Holocaust Library, 1978.This was one of the first books about the rescuers, the result of ten years of research involving early interviews with survivors and rescuers.
- Fry, Varian. Assignment Rescue: an autobiography. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1945; 1992.A chronicle of the work of Varian Fry and the Centre Americain de Secours who helped over 2,000 people to escape legally and illegally from Vichy France.
- Geier, Arnold & Friedman, T.G. . Heroes of the Holocaust: Extraordinary True Accounts of Triumph. Berkley Publishing Group, 1998. (For young adults.)
- Gershon, Karen. We came as children. London: Gollancz, 1966.An account of the Kindertransport.
- Gershon, Karen. A lesser child. Chester Springs, PA, USA: Dufour Editions, Inc., 1994.An account of the Kindertransport.
- Gies, Miep. with Gold, Alison. Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of the Woman who Helped to Hide the Frank family. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.Simple, understated, yet morally humbling account by one of the most celebrated Holocaust rescuers.
- Gilbert, Martin. The Righteous: Unsung heroes of the Holocaust. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2003.Publishers Weekly describes this book as a "comprehensive examination by a noted historian, recounted largely through first-person accounts by the Jews they rescued.... These thumbnail sketches of rescuers, their methods and, in some cases, the horrors they endured as a result of their courageous choices haven't previously been gathered in one volume." Walter Laquer writing for the New York Times finds that the book is strong on breadth but weak on depth, noting only brief entries for each rescuer, and almost no interpretation.
- Gissing, Vera. Pearls of childhood. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.First person account of the Kindertransport.
- Goldberger, Leo (Ed.) The rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York: New York University Press, 1987.An interdisciplinary collection of essays, including first-person accounts, which explore the question "Why did the Danes risk their lives to rescue their Jewish population?"
- Green, G. The Legion of Noble Christians: The Sweeney survey. New York: Trident Press, 1965.
- Gross, Leonard. The Last Jews of Berlin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.A brilliantly orchestrated account of those who rescued Jews in Hitler's Berlin.
- Gushee, David P. Righteous Gentiles of the Holocaust: Genocide and Moral Obligation. Paragon House, 2003.In this well-documented and authoritative book, Gushee explores the full range of Gentile responses to the plight of the Jews from overt hostility and obscene brutality to altruistic rescue, the better to understand the achievements of truly righteous Gentiles
- Gushee, David P. The Righteous Gentiles of the Holocaust: A Christian Interpretation. Fortress Press, 1994.
- Gutman, Y. & Zuroff, E. (Eds.) Rescue attempts During the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalen, 8-11 April, 1974. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1978.
- Haesler, A. The Lifeboat is Full: Switzerland and the Refugees, 1933-1945. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1969.
- Haestrup, Jorgen. The Secret Alliance. 3 volumes. New York: New York University Press, 1985.
- Haestrup, Jorgen. Passage to Palestine: Young Jews in Denmark 1932-1945. Odense: Odense University Press, 1983.
- Philip Hallie. Lest Innocent Blood be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon and How Goodness Happened There. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. Re-released in 1994 with new foreward by the author.One of the truly outstanding works about the rescuers, this book follows Professor Hallie's quest to understand how the small Protestant village of Le Chambon could have quietly and peacefully saved the lives of hundreds of Jewish children. A very thoughtful and heartfelt approach that is focused on philosophical and ethical considerations rather than history per se.
- Halter, Michael. Stories of Deliverance: Speaking with Men and Women who Rescued Jews from the Holocaust. Peru, IL: Carus Publishing Co., 1998.
- Harris, Mark Jonathan & Oppenheimer, Deborah. Into the arms of strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport. New York and London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2000. 292 p.: ill."For nine months prior to World War II, Britain conducted an extraordinary rescue mission, opening its doors to 10,000 children at risk from the Nazi regime—ninety per cent of them Jewish—from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. These children were taken into foster homes and hostels in Britain, expecting eventually to be reunited with their parents. Most of the children never saw their families again." Website
- Hayman, Eva. By the Moon and the Stars. Random Century New Zealand Ltd, 1992.First person account of the Kindertransport.
- Hebrew University Contemporary Jewry Oral History Collection: Part II, World War II, the Holocaust, Resistance, and Rescue. New York times oral history program. Glen Rock, N.H.: Microfilming Corp. of America, 1975.
- Hellman, Peter. Avenue of the Righteous: Portraits in Uncommon Courage of Christians and the Jews they Saved from Hitler. New York: Atheneum, 1980; New York: Bantam Books, 1981.Hellman uses a New Yorker-style nonfiction approach to profile five rescuers, each from a different European country.
- Hellman, Peter. When Courage was Stronger than Fear. Marlowe & Co., 1999.Reprint of Avenue of the Righteous, with new foreward by the author.
- Herzer, Ivo. The Italian refuge: Rescue of Jews during the Holocaust. Washington: Catholic University Press, 1989.A fine collection of essays on Italian rescue.
- Hoffman, P. The History of the German Resistance: 1933-1945. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978.
- Horbach, M. Out of the Night. New York: Frederick Fell, 1967.
- Huneke, Douglas D. The Moses of Rovno: The Stirring Story of Fritz Graebe. New York: Dodd Mead, 1985.
- Iranek-Osmecki, K. He Who Saves One Life: A Documented Story of the Poles who Struggled to Save the Jews during World War II. New York: Crown, 1971.
- Isenberg, Sheila. A Hero of Our Own: The Story of Varian Fry. New York: Random House, 2001.
- Isaacman, C. Clara's Story. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1984.
- Kahane, Rabbi David. Lvov Ghetto Diary. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.Kahane was a Ukrainian Jew who survived the Holocaust by having been taken in by an archbishop, while his wife and daughter were hidden in convents. Library Journal describes his memoir as "a book notable for its intellectual and theological probing, its sensitive portraits of fellow Jews and the decent Ukrainians who sheltered him.
- Keizer, Garret. Help: The Original Human Dilemma. San Francisco: Harper SanFrancisco, 2004.As he reaches the age of fifty, Keizer finds himself in a "dark wood" regarding his efforts throughout his life to be of help as a neighbor, husband, father, schoolteacher, and minister. He works through his personal conundrum by writing this brilliant (if sometimes a bit depressing) extended essay looking at help in all its forms. Chapter Five is devoted to Holocaust rescuers, and makes for rich philosophical reading, not unlike Hallie's approach in Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed.
- Keneally, Thomas. Schindler's List. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1982.A novelization based on the actual testimony of the Schindlerjuden - those whose lives were saved by German profiteer Oskar Schindler. It became the basis for Spielberg's multi-Oscar-winning movie.
- Kimche, Jon & Kimche, David. The Secret Roads. London: Secker and Warburg, 1954.This work discusses illegal immigration to Palestine.
- Kren, George M. & Rappoport, Leon H. The Holocaust and the Crisis of Human Behavior. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980.
- Lapomarda, Rev. Vincent S.J. The Jesuits and the Third Reich. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1989.This book deals with the efforts of the Jesuits to act as rescuers and assist in the resistance against the Nazis during the Holocaust.
- Lampe, David. The Danish Resistance. New York: Ballantine, 1960.
- Land-Weber, Ellen. To Save A Life: Stories of Jewish Rescue. University of Illinois Press, 1996.Illustrated narratives of six rescuers (all Yad Vashem honorees) paired with stories and related material of Jewish people they rescued.
- Larsen, Anita & Watling, James. Raoul Wallenberg: Missing Diplomat (History's Mysteries).
Laska, Vera. Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust: The Voices of Eyewitnesses. Westport Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.
- Latour, Anny. The Jewish Resistance in France (1940-1944). New York: Holocaust Library, 1970.
- Lazare, Lucien. Rescue as Resistance: How Jewish Organizations Fought the Holocaust in France. translated by Jeffrey M. Green. New York: Columbia University Press, c1996.
- Le Boucher, F. The Incredible Mission of Father Benoit. Translation by J.F. Bernard. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
- Lester, Elenore. Wallenberg: The Man in the Iron Web. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
- Leuner, H.D. When Compassion was a Crime: Germany's Silent Heroes 1933-1945. London: Wolf, 1966.
- Leverton, Bertha & Lowensohn, Shmuel. I Came Alone: Stories of the Kindertransport. Sussex, England: The Book Guild Ltd., 1990.
- Levine, Hillel. In Search of Sugihara: The Elusive Japanese Diplomat who Risked his Life to Rescue 10,000 Jews from the Holocaust. New York, N.Y.: Free Press, 1996.
- Linnea, Sharon. Raoul Wallenberg: The Man Who Stopped Death. Jewish Publication Society of America (JPS), 1993.
- Lowrie, D. The Hunted Children. New York: W.W. Norton, 1963.
- Lowry, Lois. Number the stars. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.Short, moving, historical novel about the Danish rescuers, especially suitable for middle-school or younger. Won the Newberry Medal, and other awards.
- Macaulay, Jacqueline R. & Berkowitz, Leonard (Eds.) Altruism and Helping Behavior. New York: Academia Press, 1970.
- Marshall, R. In the Sewers of Lvov. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.
- Marton, Kati. Wallenberg: Missing hero. New York: Random House, 1982.
- McCann, Michelle R. Luba: The Angel of Bergen-Belsen, as told by Luba Tryszynska-Frederick. Berkeley: Tricycle Press, 2003.Luba was a Jewish woman who performed the almost unbelievable feat of rescuing, hiding, and nurturing forty-six children intended for death within the concentration camp where Anne Frank and many other children died. This short illustrated book is appropriate for young readers (ages 8 and up).
- Melchior, Marcus. A Rabbi Remembers. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1968.
- Meltzer, Milton. Rescue: The Story of how Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
- Mendelsohn, John. Relief and Rescue of Jews from Nazi Oppression, 1943-1945. New York: Garland Pub., 1982.
- Milton, Sybil. Rescue to Switzerland: the Musy and Saly Mayer affairs. New York: Garland Pub., 1982.
- Mochizuki, Ken. Passage to Freedom: The Sugihara Story Illustrated by Dom Lee, Afterword by Hiroki Sugihara. New York: Lee & Low Books, Inc., 1997.A beautiful and deeply moving children's book about a Holocaust rescuer. Hiroki Sugihara was five year's old, the eldest son of the Japanese consul to Lithuania, when his father was faced with a grave decision: whether or not to grant visas to Jewish refugees, against his government's explicit orders. Through Hiroki's eyes, we too see the events of those crucial days.
- Monroe, Kristen Renwick. The Hand of Compassion: Portraits of Moral Choice during the Holocaust. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004.Described by Publishers Weekly as a "dense but fascinating treatise on moral psychology," this book also features interview transcripts with five rescuers. Written on college level, but precocious high school students may be able to jump into it.
- Muus, Flemming. The Spark and the Flame. London: Museum Press, 1957.
- Nicholson, Michael & Winner, David. Raoul Wallenberg: The Swedish Diplomat Who Saved 100,000 Jews from the Nazi Holocaust Before Mysteriously Disappearing (People Who Have Helped the World). Gareth Stevens Pub, 1989 (For young adults.)
- Novak, Zdenka. When Heaven's Vault Cracked—Zagreb Memories: Braunton, Devon: Merlin, 1995.
- Oliner, Pearl M. et al. Embracing the Other: Philosophical, Psychological, and Historical Perspectives on Altruism. New York: New York University Press, 1992.
- Oliner, S. Restless Memories. Berkeley: Judah L. Magnes Museum, 1979.
- Oliner, Samuel P. & Oliner, Pearl M. The Altruistic Personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe New York: The Free Press, 1988.A classic study of the social psychology of rescuers and their values. Essential reading for those interested in a scientific approach toward understanding the rescuers.
- Omer, Devorah. The Teheran Operation: the Rescue of Jewish Children from the Nazis: based on the biographical sketches of David and Rachel Laor. [English translation, Riva Rubin]. Washington, D.C.: B'nai B'rith Books, c1991.
- Opdyke, Irene Gut with Jennifer Armstrong. In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer. New York: Anchor Books, 2001.Opdyke's fascinating memoir of rescuing Jews in Poland has become a bestseller in the genre.
- Orenstein, H. I Shall Live. New York: Beaufort Books, 1987.
- Orlev, V. The Man from the Other Side. Translation by H. Halkin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.
- Paldiel, Mordecai. The Path of the Righteous: Gentile Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Ktav, 1993.
- Paldiel, Mordecai. Saving the Jews Rockville: Schreiber, 2000.
- Paldiel, Mordecai. Sheltering the Jews: Stories of Holocaust Rescuers. Augsburg/Fortress Publishers, 1995.
- Pettit, Jayne. A Place to Hide/True Stories of Holocaust Rescues. Scholastic Paperbacks; Reissue edition, 1993 (Ages 9-12.)
- Phayer, Michael. Protestant and Catholic Women in Nazi Germany. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990.
- Perl, William R. Operation Action: Rescue from the Holocaust. New York: F. Ungar Pub. Co., 1983. [Rev. ed. of: The four-front war. c1979.]
- Petrow, Richard. The Bitter Years: The Invasion of Denmark and Norway, April 1940-May 1945. New York: Morrow, 1974.
- Ramati, Alexander, as told by Padre Rufino Niccacci. The Assisi Underground: The Priests who Rescued Jews. New York: Stein & Day, 1978.Using letters, dairies, and official Church documents, Ramati recounts the story of Niccacci, the Franciscan priest who with other Italian Catholic clergy organize the rescue of Jews during the German occupation.
- Rautkallio, Hannu. Finland and the Holocaust: the Rescue of Finland's Jews. New York: Holocaust Library, 1987.
- Reilly, Robin. The Sixth Floor. London: Leslie Frewin, 1969.
- Reiss, J. The Upstairs Room. New York: Bantam Books, 1972.
- Rittner, Carol & Myers, Sondra (Eds.) The Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: New York University Press, 1986; 1991.The companion volume to the documentary of the same name, this handsome introduction to the rescuers consists of short personal narratives, photos, and brief essays by the likes of Elie Wiesel, and four others.
- Rosenfeld, Harvey. Raoul Wallenberg. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1995.
- Roi, Emilie. A Different Story: About a Danish girl in World War Two. Dallas, Texas: Rossel Books, 1987.
- Rochman, L. The Pit and the Trap: A Chronicle of Survival. New York: Holocaust Library, 1983.
- Rose, L. The Tulips are Red. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1978.
- Roseman, Mark. A Past in Hiding: Memory and Survival in Nazi Germany. New York: Henry Holt, 2001.
- Rosenfeld, Harvey. The Swedish Angel of Rescue: The Heroism and Torment of Raoul Wallenberg. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982.
- Rotenberg, A. Emissaries: A Memoir of the Riviera, Haute-Savoie, Switzerland, and World War II. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1987.
- Roth-Hano, R. Touch wood: A Girlhood in Occupied France. New York: Four Winds Press, 1988.
- Rubinek, S. So Many Miracles. New York: Viking Penguin, 1988.
- Rybak, Rywka. A Survivor of the Holocaust. Cleveland, Ohio: Prologue Publications, 1993
- Sadan, Inge. No Longer a Stranger. Jerusalem: Inge Sadan, 1999.First person account of the Kindertransport.
- Sakamoto, Pamela Rotner. Japanese Diplomats and Jewish Refugess: A World War II Dilemma. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.
- Samson, Naomi. Hide. University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
- Samuel, Diane. Kindertransport. [dramatic play] Plume, 1995.
- Segal, Lore. Other People's Houses. New York: The New Press, 1994.First person account of the Kindertransport.
- Sherman, A. J. Island Refuge: Britain and Refugees from the Third Reich. Essex, U.K.: Frank Cass Publications, 1994.
- Silver, Eric. The Book of the Just: The Silent Heroes who Saved Jews from Hitler. New York: Grove Press, 1992.
- Stein, Andre. Quiet heroes: True Stories of the Rescue of Jews by Christians in Nazi-occupied Holland. New York: New York University Press, 1988.
- Szpilman, Wladyslaw. The Pianist, England: Gollancz, 1999; US: Picador USA, 1999.Szpilman's memoir, suppressed by the Polish government shortly after its publication in 1946, tells the story of the young man's difficult survival in wartime Warsaw. The power of music, provides Szpilman with the determination to go on and literally saves him several times. This account also contains extracts from the diary of a German officer who saved Szpilman's life. Captain Wilm Hosenfeld's extraordinary reflections on the war, and the epilogue by German writer Wolf Bierman describing the many times that Hosenfeld came to the aid of Jews and Poles are fitting companions to Szpilman's memoir. Over a half-century later, it became an Academy Award-winning film.
- Tec, Nechama. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.Dr. Tec, a sociologist at the University of Connecticut, holds the special qualification of having herself been hidden in Poland as a child during World War II.
- Ten Boom, Corrie with John and Elizabeth Sherill. The Hiding Place. New York: Bantam, 1974.Ten Boom was a devout Christian whose family rescued Jews in Holland during the war. With the help of John and Elizabeth Sherill, she tells her story beautifully. A classic work, especially beloved by Christians, who find in Ten Boom a truly inspirational figure.
- Todorov, Tzvetan. The Fragility of Goodness: Why Bulgaria's Jews Survived the Holocaust. Arthur Denner, trans. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
- Tokayu, M. & Swart, M. The Fugu plan: The Untold Story of the Japanese and the Jews during WWII. New York: Paddington Press, Ltd., 1979.
- Tomaszewski, Irene, & Werbowski, Tecia. Zegota: the Rescue of Jews in Wartime Poland. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Price-Patterson, 1994.Zegota was an organization of Polish Jews and Christians, which provided assistance to Jews in Poland during the Holocaust. The book "Zegota", written by two women, a Jew and a Gentile, contains many fascinating stories of courage and humanity.
- Troen, Selwyn Ilan (ed.) Organizing Rescue: National Jewish Solidarity in the Modern Period. edited by Selwyn Ilan Troen and Benjamin Pinkus. London, England ; Portland, Or.: F. Cass, 1992.
- Tschuy, Theo and Simon Wiesenthal. Dangerous Diplomacy: The Story of Carl Lutz, Rescuer of 62,000 Hungarian Jews. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.
- Vlcko, P. In the Shadow of Tyranny: A history in Novel Form. New York: Vantage Press, 1973.
- Von Staden, W. Darkness Over the Valley. New Haven & New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1981.
- Waagenar, S. The Pope's Jews. (Translated from the Italian.) LaSalle, Ill.: Alcove, 1974.
- Wallenberg, Raoul & Board, Kjersti. Letters and Dispatches 1924-1945.
- Warhaftig, Zorach. Refugee and Survivor. Jerusalem: Yad VaShem: Torah Education Department, 1988.The story of the rescue of thousands of Polish Jewish refugees, among whom were rabbis, yeshiva students and pioneers ("Halutzim"), and of their rehabilitation in Displaced Persons' Camps. Rabbi Warhftig took an active part in these rescue attempts while in Lithuania, Japan and China.
- Weinstein, F. S. A Hidden Childhood: A Jewish Girl's Sanctuary in a French Convent, 1942-1945. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1985.
- Werbell, F.E. & Clarke, T. Lost Hero: The Mystery of Raoul Wallenberg. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
- Werber, Jack. Saving Children: Diary of a Buchenwald Survivor and Rescuer. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1996.
- Wolfe, J. Take Care of Josette: A Memoir in Defense of Occupied France. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981.
- Wood, E. Thomas & Jankowski, Stanislaw M. Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.This book retells the exploits of Jan Karski, a Roman Catholic member of the Polish underground resistance movement during World War II who survived Soviet captivity and Gestapo torture to bring his eyewitness account of the Nazi Holocaust to the free world in 1942. Jan Karski eventually carried his message to top Allied leaders, including U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- Wuorio, Eva-Lis. To Fight in Silence. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1973.
- Yahil, Leni. The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society (JPS), 1969.This book is considered the definitive work on the rescue of the Jewish population of Denmark. Of all the countries of Nazi-occupied Europe, only Denmark rescued virtually all its Jewish population.
- Ziemian, J. The Cigarette Sellers of Three Crosses Square. London: Vallentine & Mitchell, 1970.
- Zilversmit, Kitty. Yours Always: A Holocaust Love Story. Bethesda MD: CDL Press, 1995.
- Zuccotti, Susan. The Italians and the Holocaust: Persecution, rescue, survival. New York: Basic Books, 1987.
Visit Stories of Rescue and Heroism in the Literature section for an annotated bibliography of recommended works.
Rescuer Articles. This bibliography, also by Mary Mark and Mark Klempner, lists articles written in English which discuss the lives and actions of rescuers during the Holocaust.
The Courage to Care. Profiles of non-Jews who risked their lives to help protect the Jews from Nazi persecution are highlighted through film footage, still photographs, and first-person accounts. (29 minutes), Grades 6-12, United Way
A Debt to Honor. This documentary tells the extraordinary story of how the Italian Christians helped save over 30,000 Jews during Hitler's occupation of Northern Italy. Through interviews, film footage and still photography, Nuns, Priests and others tell their story of heroism. (30 minutes), Grades 7-12, Documentaries International, 1995
Holocaust: Liberation of Auschwitz. This video documents the liberation of Auschwitz on January 27, 1945 by Soviet troops. Warning: not recommended for unprepared audiences due to intensely graphic presentations. (18 minutes), Grades 9-12, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1990
The Holocaust: Through Our Own Eyes. This video provides firsthand accounts from Holocaust survivors, as well as liberators of the concentration camps, on the atrocities that took place. Reproducible masters, discussion questions, and activities are also provided. (35 minutes), Grades 7-12, Midwest Center for Holocaust Education, 1994
Missing Hero: Raoul Wallenberg. The story of Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat who bravely stands on a deportation train, at the risk of his life, and passes out Swedish passports is told through the testimony of those who were there. (52 minutes), Grades 9-12, BBC
Nazi Holocaust Failed in Denmark. 14 Photo aids tell the story of how the Danes protected the Jews from the Nazis during occupation. Grades 6-12, Documentary Aids
Number the Stars. The story of a young Jewish girl and her best friend who helps her, along with the Danish Resistance, escape from the Nazis during occupation in 1943. (15 minutes), Grades 3-7
The Other Side of Faith. This documentary alternates between the story of a Catholic girl who saved 13 Jews, to dealing with issues such as - Is it right to disobey an unjust law? (27 minutes), Grades 6-12, Documentaries International
The Power of Conscience: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews. The story of the Danish resistance to Hitler is told here through compelling interviews and original film footage. The Danish people are credited with saving 7,000 Jews from the horrors of the Holocaust. (55 minutes), Grades 9-12, Direct Cinema Education, 1994
Raoul Wallenberg: Between the Lines. This video documents the courage of Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat that risked his life in order to save the Jews of Budapest. (85 minutes), Grades 9-12
Rescue in Scandinavia. Narrated by Liv Ullman, the story of how the people of Scandinavia helped save 70000 Jews from the Nazis through a kind of underground railroad system. Actual film footage, as well as interviews with rescuers, and the people they rescued aid in the telling of this heroic story. (56 minutes), Grades 7-12, Documentaries International, 1994
Schindler. This documentary describes the heroic efforts of Oskar Schindler, who saved more than 1000 Jews during the Holocaust. Actual film footage, still photographs and survivors help tell the story. Note: some scenes of atrocities. (82 minutes), Grades 9-12, Thames Television
Schindler's List. Steven Spielberg's Oscar-winning film on the life of Oskar Schindler. A comprehensive teacher's guide is also included. Note: contains graphic violence, strong language, and nudity. (197 minutes), MCA, 1993
Teaching Holocaust Studies with the Internet: Internet Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities. Lessons using specific web sites along with reproducible worksheets are provided. Lessons on The Rise of Hitler and Nazism, Life in the Ghettos, Survivors' Stories and others are included. Grades 4-12, Classroom Connect, 1997
They Risked Their Lives: Rescuers of the Holocaust. Over 100 Holocaust rescuers from 12 different countries recall their heroic experiences of risking their lives to save Jews during the time of Nazi occupation. (54 minutes), Grades 7-12, Ergo Media, 1992
The Upstairs Room. The true story of Annie de Leeuw, a young Jewish Dutch girl, and the Dutch Gentiles who put their lives on the line in order to hide her and her sister from the Nazis. (37 minutes), Grades 5-8, Random House
Weapons of the Spirit. The courage of the people in the French village of Le Chambon, who saved 5000 Jewish lives is documented here through film footage, and interviews of the rescuers. (38 minutes), Grades 7-12
World War II. Twelve posters by U.S., French, German and British artists are provided to enhance units of study on World War II and propaganda. Grades 6-12, Perfection Learning
This bibliography by Mary Mark and Mark Klempner lists film and video resources which discuss the lives and actions of rescuers during the Holocaust.
Lesson Plans from the Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
Ideas for Research and Discussion of Anne Frank's Diary. Student activities from the Anne Frank Center USA.
Deliberate Acts of Kindness. Students recognize and honor the kind acts of Holocaust liberators and rescuers, cultivate their ability to do kind acts, and realize the importance of those acts to others.
Eleventh Grade Language Arts Unit.
The Lily Cupboard. This activity is based on The Lily Cupboardby Shulamith Ley Oppenheim.
Number the Stars,by Lois Lowry. New York: Dell 1990
Number the Stars. This review by Carol Otis Hurst first appeared in Teaching K-8 Magazine.
Number the Stars. Florida Atlantic University - Holocaust Outreach Center: Fifth Grade Unit
Twenty and Ten: Holocaust Outreach Center - Florida Atlantic University: Fourth Grade Unit.
Lesson Plans on Other Sites
The Schindler's List Teaching Guide is available at the Southern Institute for Education and Research site.
Assignment: Rescue: The Story of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee, an eight-day unit for high school.
Florida Resource Manual on Holocaust Education
The following materials from the State of Florida Resource Manual on Holocaust Education, Grades 9-12 will enrich your class's study of this topic. This manual was distributed to all Florida high schools in the spring of 1999 and should be available in your school resource center.
Vocabulary Unit 8 pages 7-9 Profile of Rescuers Unit 8 pages 11-12 Constructing a "Wall of Righteous People" Unit 10 page 61 Victims of Hate Crime in America Unit 10 pages 84-87
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A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
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College of Education, University of South Florida © 1997-2013.