Glossary
A  B
 C  D  E  F
 G  H  I  J 
K  L  M  N  O
 P  Q  R  S
 T  U  V  W
 X  Y  Z
The terms defined
in this glossary pertain to the Sunshine State Standards in mathematics
for grades 3 through 10 and the content assessed on FCAT in mathematics.
Note:
The following notations are used to identify the level at which students
are likely to encounter the mathematical terms.
E
 Elementary

M
 Middle School

H
 High School

Absolute
value 
a number’s
distance from zero (0) on a number line.
For example: 3 = 3 
H

Acute
angle 
an angle
that measures less than 90 and greater than 0. 
E

Additive
identity

the number
zero (0); that is, adding 0 does not change a number’s value
(e.g., 5 + 0 = 5). 
H

Additive
inverse property

a number
and its additive inverse have a sum of zero (0)
(e.g., in the equation 3 + 3 = 0, 3 and –3 are additive inverse
of each other). 
H

Algebraic
equation

a mathematical
sentence in which two expressions are connected by an equality symbol. 
H

Algebraic
expression

an expression
containing numbers and variables (e.g., 7x), and operations that
involve numbers and variables (e.g., 2x + y or 3a – 4). Algebraic
expressions do not contain equality or inequality symbols. 
H

Algebraic
order of operations

the order
of performing computations is parentheses first, then exponents,
followed by multiplication and/or division, then
addition and/or subtraction. For example:
5 + (12 – 2) ÷2 – 3 x 2
5 + 10 ÷ 2 – 3 x 2
5 + 5 – 6
10 – 6
4 
H

Algebraic
rule

a mathematical
expression that contains variables and describes a pattern or relationship. 
E

Altitude

the perpendicular
distance from a vertex in a polygon to its opposite side. 
H

Angle

the shape
made by two rays extending from a common end point, the vertex.
Measures of angles are described using the degree system. 
E

Area

the inside
region of a twodimensional figure measured in square units (e.g.,
a rectangle with sides of 4 units by 6 units contains 24 square
units or has an area of 24 square units). 
E

Associative
property

the way
in which three or more numbers are grouped for addition or multiplication
does not change their sum or product
[e.g., (5 + 6) + 9 = 5 + (6 + 9) or (2 x 3) x 8 = 2 x (3 x 8)]. 
M

Axes
(of a graph)

the horizontal
and vertical number lines used in a
rectangular graph or coordinate grid system. 
E

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Bar graph

a graph
that uses bars to display data. 
E

Base

the line
or plane upon which a figure is thought to rest. 
E

Break

a zigzag
on the line of the x or yaxis in a line or bar graph indicating
that the data being displayed do not include all of the values that
exist on the number line used. Also called a Squiggle. 
M

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Capacity

the amount
of space that can be filled. Both capacity and volume are used to
measure threedimensional spaces; however, capacity usually refers
to fluids, whereas volume usually refers to solids. 
E

Central
angle

an angle
that has its vertex at the center of a circle. 
M

Circle
graph

a data display. 
M

Circumference

the perimeter
of a circle is called its circumference. 
M

Closed
figure

a twodimensional
figure whose beginning and ending
points meet, such that the plane in which the figure lies
is divided into tow parts–the part inside the figure and the
part outside the figure (e.g., circles, squares, rectangles). 
E

Commutative
property

the order
in which two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their
sum or product (e.g., 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 or 4 x 7 = 7 x 4). 
M

Complementary
angles

two angles,
the sum of which is exactly 90. 
M

Composite
number

a whole
number that has more than two factors. 
E

Concrete
representations of numbers 
having a
definite form or relating to an actual object. 
M

Congruent

a term describing
figures or objects that are the same shape and size. 
E

Coordinate
grid or system

a network
of evenly spaced, parallel, horizontal and vertical lines especially
designed for locating points, displaying data, or drawing maps. 
E

Coordinates

numbers
that correspond to points on a coordinate graph in the form (x,
y), or a number that corresponds to a point on a number line. 
M

Counting
principle

if a first
event has n outcomes and a second event has m outcomes,
then the first event followed by the second event has n x
m outcomes. 
M

Customary
units

the units
of measure developed and used in the United States. Customary units
for length are inches, feet, yards, and miles. Customary units for
weight are ounces, pounds, and tons. Customary units for volume
are cubic inches, cubic feet, and cubic yards. Customaryunits for
capacity are fluid ounces, cups, pints, quarts, and gallons. 
E

Cylinder

a threedimensional
figure with two parallel bases that are congruent circles. 
M

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Data
displays/ graphs

different
ways of displaying data in tables, charts, or graphs,
including pictographs, circle graphs, single, double, or
triplebar and line graphs, histograms, stemandleaf plots,
boxandwhiskers plots, and scatter plots. 
M

Decimal
number

any number
written with a decimal point in the number.
A decimal number falls between two whole numbers
(e.g., 1.5 falls between 1 and 2). Decimal numbers
smaller than 1 are sometimes called decimal fractions
(e.g., fivetenths is written 0.5). 
E

Diameter

a line segment
from any point on the circle passing through the center to another
point on the circle. 
M

Direct
measure

obtaining
the measure of an object by using measuring devices, either standard
devices of the customary or metric systems, or nonstandard devices
such as a paper clip or pencil. 
E

Distributive
property

for any
real numbers a, b, and x, x(a + b) = ax + bx. 
M

Divisible

a term describing
a number capable of being divided into equal parts without a remainder. 
E

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Effects
of operations

the results
of applying an operation to given numbers (e.g., adding two whole
numbers results in a number greater than or equal to the original
numbers. 
E

Empirical
probability

the likelihood
of an event happening that is based on experience and observation
rather than on theory. 
E

Enlargement

an increase
in size in all dimensions by a uniform amount. 
M

Equation

a mathematical
sentence (e.g., 2x = 10) that equates one expression (2x) to another
expression (10). 
E

Equivalent
expressions

expressions
that have the same value but are presented in a different format
using the properties of numbers. [e.g., ax + bx = (a + b)x]. 
M

Equivalent
forms of a number

the same
number expressed in different forms (e.g., 3/4, 0.75, 75%). 
E

Explain
in words

directions
requesting a written description of the procedures for finding the
solution to the problem presented. 
E

Exponent
(exponential form)

the number
of times the base occurs as a factor. For example, 2^{3}
is the exponential form of 2 x 2 x 2. The numeral 2 is called the
base, and the numeral 3 is called the exponent. 
M

Expression

a collection
of numbers, symbols, and/or operation signs that stands for a number. 
E

Extrapolate

to estimate
or infer a value or quantity beyond the known range. 
M

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Face

one of the
plane surfaces bounding a threedimensional figure (a side). 
E

Factor

a number
or expression that divides exactly another number (e.g., 1, 2, 4,
5, 10, and 20 are factors of 10). 
E

Finite
graph

a graph
having definable limits.

H

Flip

a transformation
that produces the mirror image of a geometric figure. Also called
a Reflection.

E

Fraction

any part
of a whole is called a fraction (e.g., onehalf written in fractional
form is 1/2).

E

Function

a relation
in which each value of x is paired with a unique value of y.

E

Function
table

a table
of x and yvalues (ordered pairs) that represents the function,
pattern, relationship, or sequence between the two variables.

M

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Grid

a network
of evenly spaces, parallel, horizontal, and vertical lines.

E

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Height

a line segment
extending from the vertex or apex of a figure to its base and forming
a right angle with the base or basal point.

E

Hypotenuse

in a right
triangle, the side opposite the right angle.

M

Hypothesis

a proposition
or supposition developed to provide a basis for further investigation
or research.

M

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Indirect
measure

the measurement
of an object through the known measure of another object.

M

Inequality

a sentence
that states one expression is greater than, greater than or equal
to, less than, less than or equal to, or not equal to, another expression
(e.g., a 5 or x < 7).

E

Integers

the numbers
in the set {…, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …}.

M

Intercept

the value
of a variable when all other variables in the equation equal zero
(0). On a graph, the values where a function crosses the axes.

M

Intersection

the point
at which two lines meet.

E

Inverse
operation

an action
that cancels a previously applied action. For example, subtraction
is the inverse operation of addition.

M

Irrational
number

a real number
that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two numbers (e.g., ).

M

Isosceles
triangle

a triangle
with two congruent sides and two congruent angles.

M

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Labels
(for a graph)

the titles
given to a graph, the axes of a graph, or to the scales on the axes
of a graph.

E

Length

a onedimensional
measure that is the measurable property of line segments.

E

Likelihood

the chance
that something is likely to happen.
See Probability.

E

Line

a straight
line that is endless in length.

E

Linear
equation

an algebraic
equation in which the variable quantity or quantities are in the
first power only and the graph is a straight line [e.g., 20 = 2(w
+ 4) + 2w and y = 3x + 4].

M

Line
graph

a graph
that displays data using connected line segments.

E

Line
segment

a portion
of a line that has a defined beginning and end (e.g., the line segment
AB is between point A and point B).

M

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Mean

the arithmetic
average of a set of numbers.

E

Median

the middle
point of a set of ordered numbers where half of the numbers are
above the median and half are below it.

E

Metric
units

the units
of measure developed in Europe and used in most of the world. Like
the decimal system, the metric system uses the base 10. Metric units
for length are milligrams, grams, and kilograms. Metric units for
volume are cubic millimeters, cubic centimeters, and cubic meters.
Metric units for capacity are milliliters, centiliters, liters,
and kiloliters.

E

Midpoint
of a line segment

the point
on a line segment that divides it into two equal parts.

M

Mode

the score
or data point found most often in a set of numbers.

E

Multiples

the numbers
that result from multiplying a given number by the set of whole
numbers (e.g., the multiples of 15 are 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, etc.).

E

Multiplicative
identity

the number
one (1), that is, multiplying by 1 does not change a number’s
value (e.g., 5 x 1 = 5).

M

Multiplicative
inverse (reciprocal)

any two
numbers with a product of 1 (e.g., 4 and 1/4).

M

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Natural
numbers (counting numbers)

the numbers
in the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …}.

M

Negative
exponent

used in
scientific notation to designate a number smaller than one (1) (e.g.,
3.45 x 10 ^{2} equals 0.0345).

M

Nonstandard
units of measure

objects
such as blocks, paper clips, crayons, or pencils that can be used
to obtain a measure.

E

Number
line

a line on
which numbers can be written or visualized.

E

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Obtuse
angle

an angle
with a measure of more than 90 but less than 180.

E

Odds

the ratio
of one event occurring to it not occurring.

M

Operation

any mathematical
process, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
raising to a power, or finding the square root.

E

Operational
shortcut

a method
having fewer arithmetic calculations.

H

Ordered
pair

the location
of a single point on a rectangular coordinate system where the digits
represent the position relative to the xaxis and yaxis [e.g.,
(x, y) or (3, 4)].

E

Organized
data

data arranged
in a display that is meaningful and that assists in the interpretation
of the data.
See Data displays.

E

Origin

the point
in the coordinate plane at which the horizontal axis (xaxis) intersects
the vertical axis (yaxis). The point has coordinates (0,0).

M

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Parallel
lines

two lines
in the same plane that never meet.
Also, lines with equal slopes.

E

Pattern
(relationship)

a predictable
or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc. Patterns and relationships
may be described or presented using manipulatives, tables, graphics
(pictures or drawings), or algebraic rules (functions). Also called
a Relation.

E

Percent

a specialcase
ratio in which the second term is always 100. The ratio is written
as a whole number followed by a percent sign (e.g., 25% means the
ratio of 25 to 100).

E

Perimeter

the distance
around a figure.

E

Perpendicular

a line describing
two lines or two line segments that cross to form a right angle.

E

Pi (
)

the symbol
designating the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter,
represented as either 3.14 or 22/7).

M

Pictograph

a data display.

M

Place
value

the position
of a single digit in a whole number or decimal number containing
one or more digits.

E

Planar
crosssection

the intersection
of a plane and a threedimensional figure.

H

Plane
figure

a twodimensional
figure that lies entirely within a single plane.

E

Point

a location
in space that has no discernible length or width.

E

Polygon

a closed
plane figure whose sides are straight lines that are connected endpoint
to endpoint.

E

Prime
number

any whole
number with only two factors, 1 and itself
(e.g., 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc.).

E

Proof

a set of
steps that demonstrates the truth of a given statement. Each step
can be justified with a reason, such as a given, a definition, an
axiom, or a previously proven property.

H

Proportion

a mathematical
sentence stating that two ratios are equal.

M

Pyramid

a threedimensional
figure whose base is a polygon and whose faces are triangles with
a common vertex.

M

Pythagorean
theorem

the square
of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of
the squares of the legs (a and b), as shown in the equation c^{2} =
a^{2} + b^{2}.

M

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Quadrant

any of the
four regions formed by the axes in a rectangular coordinate system.

M

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Radical
sign

the symbol
( ) used before a number
to show that the number is a radicand.

M

Radicand

a number
appears with a radical sign (e.g., in ,
25 is the radicand).

M

Radius

a line segment
extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the
circle or sphere.

M

Range

the lowest
value (L) in a set of numbers through the highest value (H) in the
set. When the width of the range is expressed as a single number,
the range is calculated as the difference between the highest and
lowest values. More advanced presentations show the range calculated
as (H – L + 1). The result of either calculation would be considered
correct.

E

Rate/distance

calculations
involving rates, distances, and time intervals, based on the distance,
rate, time formula (D = rt).

M

Ratio

the comparison
of two quantities (e.g., the ratio of a and b is a/b,
where b 0.

E

Rational
number

a real number
that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.

M

Ray

a portion
of a line that begins at a point and goes on forever in one direction.

E

Real
number

all rational
and irrational numbers.

M

Reciprocal

see Multiplicative
inverse.

H

Reflexive
axiom of equality

a number
or expression is equal to itself (e.g., ab = ab).

H

Regular
polygon

a polygon
that is both equilateral and equiangular.

E

Relation
(relationship)

see Pattern.

E

Relative
size

the size
of one number in comparison to the size of another number or numbers.

M

Right
angle

an angle
whose measure is exactly 90.

E

Right
circular cylinder

a cylinder
in which the bases are parallel circles perpendicular to the side
of the cylinder.

M

Right
prism or rectangular solid

a threedimensional
figure (polyhedron) with congruent, polygonal bases and lateral
faces that are all parallelograms.

M

Right
triangle geometry

finding
the measures of missing sides or angles of a right triangle when
given the measures of other sides or angles.

H

Rise

the change
in y going from one point of x to another (the vertical change on
the graph).

M

Rotation

a transformation
of a figure by turning it about a center point or axis. The amount
of rotation is usually expressed in the number of degrees (e.g.,
a 90 rotation). Also called a Turn.

E

Rule

a mathematical
expression that describes a pattern or relationship, or a written
description of the pattern or relationship.

E

Run

the change
in x going from one point of y to another (the horizontal change
on the graph.

M

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Scale
model

a model
or drawing based on a ratio of the dimensions for the model and
the actual object it represents (e.g., a map).

E

Scales

the numeric
values assigned to the axes of a graph.

E

Scatter
Plot

a graph
of data points, usually from an experiment, that is used to observe
the relationship between two values.

M

Scientific
notation

a shorthand
method of writing very large or very small numbers using exponents
in which a number is expressed as the product of a power of 10 and
a number that is greater than or equal to one (1) andless than 10
(e.g., 7.59 x 10^{5} = 759,000). It is based on the idea
that it is easier to read exponents than it is to count zeros. If
a number is already a power of 10, it is simply written 10^{27} instead
of 1 x 10^{27}.

M

Sequence

an ordered
list with either a constant difference (arithmetic) or a constant
ratio (geometric).

M

Side

the edge
of a geometric figure (e.g., a triangle has three sides).

E

Similar
figures

figures
that are the same shape, have corresponding, congruent angles, and
have corresponding sides that are proportional in length.

E

Similarity

a term describing
figures that are the same shape but are not necessarily the same
size or in the same position.

E

Slide

to move
along in constant contact with the surface in a vertical, horizontal,
or diagonal direction. Also called a Translation.

E

Slope

the constant,
m, in the linear equation for the slopeintercept form y = mx
+ b. The ratio of change in the vertical axis (yaxis) to each
unit change in the horizontal axis (xaxis) in the form
or .

M

Solid
figures

threedimensional
figures that completely enclose
a portion of space (e.g., a rectangular solid, cube,
sphere, right circular cylinder, right circular cone, and
square pyramid).

M

Spatial
relationships

relationships
of figures existing or happening
in space.

E

Square
root

a positive
real number that can be multiplied by itself to produce a given
number (e.g., the square root of 144 is 12 or
= 12).

M

Standard
units of measure

accepted
measuring devices and units of the customary or metric system.

E

Straight
angle

an angle
whose measure is exactly 180.

E

Supplementary
angles

two angles,
the sum of which is exactly 180.

M

Surface
area of a geometric solid

the sum
of the areas of the faces of the figure
that create the geometric solid.

M

Symbolic
expression

a symbol
or set of symbols expressing a mathematical quantity or operation
(e.g., 2x is equal to two times x).

E

Symbolic
representations of numbers

expressions
represented by symbols (e.g., circles shaded to represent 1/4 or
variables used to represent quantities).

M

Symmetry

a term describing
the result of a line drawn through the center of a figure such that
the two halves are congruent.

E

System
of equations

a group
of two or more equations that share variables. The solution to a
system of equations is an ordered number set that makes all of the
equations true.

H

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Tessellation

a covering
of a plane with congruent copies of the same pattern with no holes
and no overlaps, like floor tiles.

M

Theoretical/expected
probability

the likelihood
of an event happening based on theory rather than on experience
and observation.

E

Transformation

an operation
on a geometric figure by which
another image is created. Common transformations
Include flips, slides, and turns.

E

Transitive
property

when the
first element has a particular relationship to a second element
that in turn has the same relationship to a third element, the first
has this same relationship to the third element (e.g., if a =
b and b = c, then a = c). Identity and equality
are transitive relationships.

H

Transversal

a line that
intersects two or more lines at different points.

M

Tree
diagram

a diagram
in which all the possible outcomes of a given event are displayed.

E

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Unorganized
data

data that
are presented in a random manner.

E

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Variable

any symbol
that could represent a number.

E

Vertex

the common
endpoint from which two rays begin (e.g., the vertex of an angle)
or the point where two lines intersect; the point on a triangle
or pyramid opposite to and farthest from the base.

E

Vertical
angles

the opposite
angles formed when two lines intersect.

M

Volume

the amount
of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units.
Both capacity and volume areused to measure empty spaces; however,
capacity usually refers to fluids, whereas volume usually refers
to solids.

E

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Weight

measures
that represent the force that attracts an object to the center of
Earth.

E

Whole
numbers

the numbers
in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …}.

E

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xintercept

the value
of x on a graph when y is zero (0). The xaxis is the horizontal
number line on a rectangular coordinate system.

M

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yintercept

the value
of y on a graph when x is zero (0). The yaxis is the vertical number
line on a rectangular coordinate system.

M

Copyright Statement
for this Assessment and Evaluation Services Publication
Authorization
for reproduction of this document is hereby granted to persons acting
in an official capacity within the State System of Public Education
as defined in Section 228.041(1), Florida Statutes. The copyright notice
at the bottom of this page must be included in all copies.
The Administrator
Assessment and Evaluation Services
Florida Department of Education
Turlington Building, Room 414
325 West Gaines Street
Tallahassee, Florida 323990400
Copyright 2000
State of Florida Department of State
