The Rosenstrasse Protest
Rosenstrasse represents the little-attended-to story of the German women who rescued their husbands from deportation and death in early 1943. Swept up from their forced labor jobs in what was meant to be the Final Roundup in the national capital, 1700-2000 Jews, mostly men married to non-Jewish women, were separated from the 6000 other victims of the Gestapo and SS and herded into Rosenstrass e 2-4, a welfare office for the Jewish community in central Berlin. Because these Jews had German relatives, many of them highly connected, Adolf Eichmann hoped that segregating them from the others would convince family members that their loved ones were being sent to labor camps rather than to more ominous destinations in occupied Poland. Normally, those arrested remained in custody for two days before being loaded onto trains for the East. Before that could happen in this case, however, wives and other relatives got wind of what was happening and appeared at the Rosenstrasse address, first in ones and twos, and then in ever-growing numbers. Perhaps as many as six thousand participated in the protest, although not all at the same time. Women demanded back their husbands, day after day, for a week. Unarmed, unorganized, and leaderless, they faced down the most brutal forces at the disposal of the Third Reich. Goebbels, Gauleiter of Berlin and anxious to have it racially cleansed, was also in charge of the nation's public morale. On both counts he was worried about the possible repercussions of the women's actions. Rather than inviting more open dissent by shooting the women down in the streets and fearful of jeopardizing the secrecy of the Final Solution, Goebbels with Hitler's concurrence released the Rosenstrasse prisoners and also ordered the return of twenty-five of them already sent to Auschwitz. To both men, the decision was a mere postponement of the inevitable. But they were mistaken. Almost all of those released survived the war. The women won an astonishing victory over the forces of destruction.
Excerpt from Richard S. Levy's review of Nathan Stolfuss' book Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany.Copyright © 1997 by H-Net, all rights reserved.
Visit the Topography of Terror site for a special exhibition on the Rosenstrasse Protest.
Ash, Barbara. review of Nathan Stoltzfus' book, Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany.
Stoltzfus, Nathan. Philadelphia Inquirer Bulletin March 18, 1997. Unsung (German) Heroes
From The Politics of Nonviolent Action by Gene Sharp.
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A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
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College of Education, University of South Florida © 2005.