Prediction-Association-Verification-Evaluation (PAVE) Procedure – This procedure encourages students to 1) predict a word’s meaning within the context it appears, 2) consult a dictionary to find the correct meaning, and 3) re-evaluate their predictions. Vocabulary words addressed on the FCAT are also presented within context when a definition is required.


  1. The teacher assigns a passage to be read by the students along with vocabulary words or phrases. As they encounter each of their vocabulary words, students complete a PAVE map.
  2. The student writes the sentence in which the word appears.
  3. The student writes the word again in isolation.
  4. The student writes a sentence using the word to show an initial understanding of the word’s meaning.
  5. The student looks up the word in the dictionary and writes its definition.
  6. The student compares the dictionary’s definition with the sentence she or he wrote and, if necessary, writes a new sentence.
  7. The student draws a visual representation of the word to help her/him remember its meaning.


Bannon, E., Fisher, P., Pozzi, L., & Wessel, D. (1990). "Effective definitions for word learning." Journal of Reading. 1990: 34, pp.301-302.

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