C. Decide on Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomes are statements of what is expected as
a result of a learning activity. For the purposes of this course,
we will classify multimedia activities into the following categories:
- Content/Basic-Thinking Activities. The Iowa Department of Education
defines Content/basic thinking as "the skills, attitudes,
and dispositions required to learn accepted information --
basic academic content, general knowledge, 'common sense,'
-- and to recall this information after it has been learned" (1989,
p. 7). Multimedia activities that would fall into this category
might include students labeling a map in a graphics program
or creating an animation explaining how to measure perimeter.
- Communication Activities. Communication skills involve the ability
to convey ideas and information and to collaborate, publish, and
interact with peers, experts, and others. Multimedia can be used
to enhance and encourage communication skills by allowing students
to illustrate ideas via graphics, sound, or video. In addition,
students can use the Web or presentation software as a forum for
presenting their ideas. Multimedia activities that would fall
into this category include creating a presentation focusing on
factual information or developing a graph on data that has been
gathered concerning a specific topic.
- Collaboration Activities. Collaboration skills
include the ability to distribute roles, accept responsibility,
and interact effectively. Multimedia is a good forum for developing
these skills and enhancing cooperation and social negotiation.
Although two or more students may share a computer, true collaboration
requires the ability to work as a team toward a common goal.
Multimedia activities that would fall into this category might
include collaborating on a digital video project or using Inspiration
to brainstorm an idea.
- Critical Thinking Activities. Critical thinking involves three
critical skills -- analysis, evaluation, and making connections
(Jonassen, 2000). Analysis involves the ability to identify individual
parts of relationships, conduct comparisons, and classify objects
into categories. Synthesis focuses on activities that require
students to integrate, combine, or connect ideas into a plan or
project. Evaluation involves assessing the reliability, usefulness,
and accuracy of information, on the basis of specific standards
or criteria. Multimedia activities that would fall into this category
include contrasting writing styles of famous Floridian authors
on a web page or creating a Venn diagram using concept mapping
- Creative Thinking Activities. Creative thinking
focuses on the generation of new knowledge and involves skills
such as synthesizing, elaborating, and imagining (Jonassen,
2000). Elaborating involves the ability to modify, extend, and
hypothesize. Imagining focuses on being able to visualize, speculate,
and predict outcomes based on specific circumstances. Multimedia
activities that would fall into this category include scanning
objects of family heritage to create a digital video or reflecting
on various student projects in a web-based electronic portfolio.
To summarize these classifications, review the following table:
|Using the digital map, the student will label each state and
indicate its major source of revenue.
|Using e-mail and the Internet, the student will disseminate
the findings of the joint research.
|Working in teams of three, the students will cooperate to
create an electronic presentation.
|Using a spreadsheet and a water testing kit, the student will
compare and contrast the water quality in three lakes.
|The student will
produce storyboards for a digital movie that provides an alternate
ending for the story.