The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for K-12 students. The TIM incorporates five interdependent characteristics of meaningful learning environments: active, constructive, goal directed (i.e., reflective), authentic, and collaborative (Jonassen, Howland, Moore, & Marra, 2003). The TIM associates five levels of technology integration (i.e., entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion, and transformation) with each of the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments. Together, the five levels of technology integration and the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments create a matrix of 25 cells as illustrated below.

Levels of Technology Integration into the Curriculum

Entry

The teacher begins to use technology tools to deliver curriculum content to students.

Adoption

The teacher directs students in the conventional and procedural use of technology tools.

Adaptation

The teacher facilitates students in exploring and independently using technology tools.

Infusion

The teacher provides the learning context and the students choose the technology tools to achieve the outcome.

Transformation

The teacher encourages the innovative use of technology tools. Technology tools are used to facilitate higher order learning activities that may not have been possible without the use of technology.

Active

Students are actively engaged in using technology as a tool rather than passively receiving information from the technology.


Information passively received

…more


Conventional, procedural use of tools

…more


Conventional independent use of tools; some student choice and exploration

…more


Choice of tools and regular, self-directed use

…more


Extensive and unconventional use of tools

…more

Collaborative

Students use technology tools to collaborate with others rather than working individually at all times.


Individual student use of tools

…more


Collaborative use of tools in conventional ways.

…more


Collaborative use of tools; some student choice and exploration

…more


Choice of tools and regular use for collaboration

…more


Collaboration with peers and outside resources in ways not possible without technology

…more

Constructive

Students use technology tools to connect new information to their prior knowledge rather than to passively receive information.


Information delivered to students

…more


Guided, conventional use for building knowledge

…more


Independent use for building knowledge; some student choice and exploration

…more


Choice and regular use for building knowledge

…more


Extensive and unconventional use of technology tools to build knowledge

…more

Authentic

Students use technology tools to link learning activities to the world beyond the instructional setting rather than working on decontextualized assignments.


Use unrelated to the world outside of the instructional setting

…more


Guided use in activities with some meaningful context

…more


Independent use in activities connected to students' lives; some student choice and exploration

…more


Choice of tools and regular use in meaningful activities

…more


Innovative use for higher order learning activities in a local or global context

…more

Goal Directed

Students use technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results rather than simply completing assignments without reflection.


Directions given, step-by-step task monitoring

…more


Conventional and procedural use of tools to plan or monitor

…more


Purposeful use of tools to plan and monitor; some student choice and exploration

…more


Flexible and seamless use of tools to plan and monitor

…more


Extensive and higher order use of tools to plan and monitor

…more


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The original 2005-2006 TIM remains available as a reference.

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